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CNC-Bearbeitung

08.04.20

CNC-Bearbeitung is a process used in the manufacturing sector that involves the use of computers to control machine tools. Tools that can be controlled in this manner include lathes, mills, routers and grinders. The CNC in CNC-Bearbeitung stands for Computer Numerical Control.

Wie funktioniert CNC?
On the surface, it may looks like a normal PC controls the machines, but the computer's unique software and control console are what really sets the system apart for use in CNC machining.

Under CNC-Bearbeitung, machine tools function through numerical control. A computer program is customized for an object and the machines are programmed with CNC machining language (called G-code) that essentially controls all features like feed rate, coordination, location and speeds. With CNC machining, the computer can control exact positioning and velocity. CNC machining is used in manufacturing both metal and plastic parts.

Unter der numerischen Steuerung (CNC) versteht man die Automatisierung von Werkzeugmaschinen mit Hilfe von Computern, die vorprogrammierte Sequenzen von Maschinensteuerungsbefehlen ausführen. [1] Dies steht im Gegensatz zu Maschinen, die manuell über Handräder oder Hebel gesteuert werden oder mechanisch nur durch Nocken automatisiert werden.

In modern CNC systems, the design of a mechanical part and its manufacturing program is highly automated. The part's mechanical dimensions are defined using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The resulting directives are transformed (by "post processor" software) into the specific commands necessary for a particular machine to produce the component, and then loaded into the CNC machine.

Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc. – modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other installations, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD.

First a CAD drawing is created (either 2D or 3D), and then a code is created that the CNC machine will understand. The program is loaded and finally an operator runs a test of the program to ensure there are no problems. This trial run is referred to as "cutting air" and it is an important step because any mistake with speed and tool position could result in a scraped part or a damaged machine.

Vor- und Nachteile von CNC
There are many advantages to using CNC-Bearbeitung. The process is more precise than manual machining, and can be repeated in exactly the same manner over and over again. Because of the precision possible with CNC-Bearbeitung, this process can Komplexe Formen herstellen that would be almost impossible to achieve with manual machining. CNC-Bearbeitung is used in the production of many complex three-dimensional shapes. It is because of these qualities that CNC-Bearbeitung is used in jobs that need a high level of precision or very repetitive tasks.

Der Nachteil ist, dass CNC-Maschinen teurer sind als manuell betriebene Maschinen, obwohl die Kosten langsam sinken.